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Details Collect From YY Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. We will contact you if necessary. To learn more about Copies Direct watch this short online video. Need help? How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item? Can I get a copy? During The High, institutions are strong and individualism is weak. Society is confident about where it wants to go collectively, though those outside the majoritarian center often feel stifled by the conformity. Kennedy on November 22, According to the theory, the Second Turning is an Awakening.

This is an era when institutions are attacked in the name of personal and spiritual autonomy. Just when society is reaching its high tide of public progress, people suddenly tire of social discipline and want to recapture a sense of "self-awareness", "spirituality" and "personal authenticity". Young activists look back at the previous High as an era of cultural and spiritual poverty. The mood of this era they say is in many ways the opposite of a High: Institutions are weak and distrusted, while individualism is strong and flourishing.

The authors say Highs come after Crises, when society wants to coalesce and build and avoid the death and destruction of the previous crisis. Unravelings come after Awakenings, when society wants to atomize and enjoy. According to the authors, the Fourth Turning is a Crisis. This is an era of destruction, often involving war or revolution, in which institutional life is destroyed and rebuilt in response to a perceived threat to the nation's survival. After the crisis, civic authority revives, cultural expression redirects towards community purpose, and people begin to locate themselves as members of a larger group.

The G. Generation which they call a Hero archetype, born to came of age during this era. They say their confidence, optimism, and collective outlook epitomized the mood of that era. The authors describe each turning as lasting about 20—22 years.


Four turnings make up a full cycle of about 80 to 90 years, [43] which the authors term a saeculum , after the Latin word meaning both "a long human life" and "a natural century". Generational change drives the cycle of turnings and determines its periodicity. Therefore, a symbiotic relationship exists between historical events and generational personas. Historical events shape generations in childhood and young adulthood; then, as parents and leaders in midlife and old age, generations in turn shape history.

A Generation at Risk : Growing Up in an Era of Family Upheaval

Each of the four turnings has a distinct mood that recurs every saeculum. Strauss and Howe describe these turnings as the "seasons of history". At one extreme is the Awakening, which is analogous to summer, and at the other extreme is the Crisis, which is analogous to winter. The turnings in between are transitional seasons, the High and the Unraveling are similar to spring and autumn, respectively.

Both of these are defining eras in which people observe that historic events are radically altering their social environment. Awakenings are periods marked by cultural or religious renewal, when society focuses on changing the inner world of values and private behavior the last American Awakening was the "Consciousness Revolution" of the s and s.

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During Crises, great peril provokes a societal consensus, an ethic of personal sacrifice, and strong institutional order. During Awakenings, an ethic of individualism emerges, and the institutional order is attacked by new social ideals and spiritual agendas. Roughly halfway to the next Crisis, a cultural Awakening occurs historically, these have often been called Great Awakenings.

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In describing this cycle of Crises and Awakenings, they draw from the work of other historians and social scientists who have also discussed long cycles in American and European history. The cycle of Crises corresponds with long cycles of war identified by such scholars as Arnold J.

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Toynbee , Quincy Wright , and L. Ferrar Jr. Thompson and George Modelski. Klingberg , and the economy Nikolai Kondratieff as well as with long-term oscillations in crime and substance abuse. The authors say two different types of eras and two formative age locations associated with them childhood and young adulthood produce four generational archetypes that repeat sequentially, in rhythm with the cycle of Crises and Awakenings.

In essence, generations shaped by similar early-life experiences develop similar collective personas and follow similar life-trajectories. The authors describe the archetypes as follows:. Prophet Idealist generations enter childhood during a High , a time of rejuvenated community life and consensus around a new societal order. Prophets grow up as the increasingly indulged children of this post-Crisis era, come of age as self-absorbed young crusaders of an Awakening, focus on morals and principles in midlife, and emerge as elders guiding another Crisis.

Nomad Reactive generations enter childhood during an Awakening , a time of social ideals and spiritual agendas, when young adults are passionately attacking the established institutional order. Nomads grow up as under-protected children during this Awakening, come of age as alienated , post-Awakening young adults, become pragmatic midlife leaders during a Crisis, and age into resilient post-Crisis elders. Hero Civic generations enter childhood after an Awakening , during an Unraveling , a time of individual pragmatism, self-reliance, and laissez-faire.

Heroes grow up as increasingly protected post-Awakening children, come of age as team-oriented young optimists during a Crisis, emerge as energetic, overly-confident midlifers, and age into politically powerful elders attacked by another Awakening.

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Generation , Millennials. Artist Adaptive generations enter childhood after an Unraveling, during a Crisis , a time when great dangers cut down social and political complexity in favor of public consensus, aggressive institutions, and an ethic of personal sacrifice. Artists grow up overprotected by adults preoccupied with the Crisis, come of age as the socialized and conformist young adults of a post-Crisis world, break out as process-oriented midlife leaders during an Awakening, and age into thoughtful post-Awakening elders.

Note 0 : Strauss and Howe base the turning start and end dates not on the generational birth year span, but when the prior generation is entering adulthood. A generation "coming of age" is signaled by a "triggering event" that marks the turning point and the ending of one turning and the beginning of the new. For example, the "triggering event" that marked the coming of age for the Baby Boom Generation was the Assassination of John F. This marked the end of a first turning and the beginning of a second turning.

This is why turning start and end dates don't match up exactly with the generational birth years, but they tend to start and end a few years after the generational year spans. This also explains why a generation is described to have "entered childhood" during a particular turning, rather than "born during" a particular turning.

Note 1 : According to Strauss and Howe their generational types have appeared in Anglo-American history in a fixed order for more than years with one hitch, occurring in the Civil War Saeculum. They say the reason for this is because according to the chart, the Civil War came about ten years too early; the adult generations allowed the worst aspects of their generational personalities to come through; and the Progressives grew up scarred rather than ennobled. Note 2 : Strauss and Howe initially used the name "13th Generation" in their book Generations , which was published mere weeks before Douglas Coupland 's Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture was, but later adopted "Generation X" when it became the more widely accepted term for the cohort.

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  • The generation is so numbered because it is the thirteenth generation alive since American Independence counting back until Benjamin Franklin's. Note 3 : Although there is as yet no universally accepted name for this generation, "Millennials", a term Strauss and Howe coined, has become the most widely accepted. Note 4 : New Silent Generation was a proposed holding name used by Howe and Strauss in their demographic history of America, Generations , to describe people whose birth years began in the mids with an ending point around the mids.