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Hungarian; gendarme, pl.

Guide Fire Ice Air: A Polish Jews Memoir of Yeshiva, Siberia, America

In retaliation, US president John F. Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on Cuba in October and declared that any missile launched from Cuba would warrant a full-scale US nuclear attack on the Soviet Union. After two weeks of extreme tension and fears of nuclear war on both sides, an agreement was reached: the missile sites in Cuba would be dismantled in exchange for a US commitment not to invade Cuba.

The Soviet ships carrying missiles to Cuba turned back and the crisis ended. An island nation in the Mediterranean and former British colony that was granted independence from Great Britain in In the s, Cyprus was the location of British detention camps for European Jewish refugees who were attempting to illegally immigrate to British Mandate Palestine. More than 50, Jewish refugees were interned in these camps. A socialist who was active in the resistance movement of the Polish Home Army at the start of World War II in , he was arrested by German armed forces in and imprisoned until September , when he was transferred to Auschwitz.

During his incarceration in the camp, he joined the underground Polish resistance group and helped get messages to the outside world. He was sent on the death march to Mauthausen in January and eventually liberated there by US troops. See also Polish Underground in Auschwitz. A Polish-Lithuanian general who helped defend Poland from invasion by Sweden in His troops attacked the Jewish communities through which they passed, destroying synagogues and killing many people.

A section of Auschwitz II Birkenau reserved for the 17, mostly Czechoslovakian Jewish prisoners who were deported from the Theresienstadt ghetto and concentration camp between September and May Initially, inmates in the family camp were accorded privileges such as receiving parcels and writing postcards as the Nazis attempted to counteract rumours that they were annihilating Jews.

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However, in March , thousands were murdered in the gas chambers; and in July , after a selection that found only a few thousand fit for forced labour, the rest of the family camp was sent to the gas chambers. A suburb of Warsaw and the site of a privately-owned farm where the Dror Zionist movement made an arrangement for Jewish workers to be housed and fed in exchange for providing labour.

Approximately eighty Jews worked eight- to ten-hour days on the farm, after which they were free to spend time as they liked, from mid until November or December , when the Nazis ordered the Polish estate owner, Mr. Zatwarnicki, to turn over all Jewish labourers to Nazi authorities. The Dachau camp was located about sixteen kilometres northwest of Munich in southern Germany. The number of Jews interned there rose considerably after Kristallnacht pogroms on the night of November 9—10, In a crematorium area was constructed next to the main camp.

By the spring of , Dachau and its subcamps held more than 67, registered prisoners — 43, categorized as political prisoners and 22, as Jews. As the American Allied forces neared the camp in April , the Nazis forced 7, prisoners, primarily Jews, on a gruelling death march to Tegernsee, another camp in southern Germany. The second-longest river in Europe, running through ten European countries, including Hungary.

It is an important source of drinking water and mode of transportation for millions of Europeans. During the winter of —, members of the Arrow Cross rounded up Jews from the streets and the nearby Budapest ghetto, marched them to the shore of the Danube and shot them so that their bodies would fall into the river to be carried away. A memorial consisting of sixty pairs of rusted cast-iron shoes was erected on the site in A city-state and seaport situated at the mouth of the Vistula River on the Baltic Sea, located about kilometres north of Lodz and kilometres northeast of Berlin.

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In September the Germans occupied and immediately re-annexed the city. During the war the city endured heavy Allied and Soviet bombardment by air and during the Soviet capture of the city in March it was largely destroyed. In the post-war settlement agreed to by the Allies, the city became part of Poland. See also Vallat, Xavier. Das Reich participated in the Nazi invasion of France, then fought on the Eastern Front, and toward the end of the war, fought the Allies when they landed in Normandy.

The division committed atrocities in Tulles and Oradour-sur-Glane, in France, brutally massacring hundreds of French civilians, supposedly in retaliation for resistance activities. Hebrew; literally, it would have been enough for us A traditional song of gratitude that is sung during the ritual meal, or seder, held at the beginning of the Jewish holiday of Passover. The song is over one thousand years old and lists the many gifts given by God to the Jewish people. These ten days, beginning with Rosh Hashanah and ending with Yom Kippur, are a time of reflection, repentance, prayer and forgiveness.

French general and statesman who opposed both the Nazi regime and French collaborationist Vichy government.

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In London, de Gaulle organized the Free French Forces, a partisan and resistance group comprised of French officers in exile. After the war, de Gaulle served as head of the French provisional government from to , and as president of France from to He also commanded French forces during the First Indochina War — , in which Vietnam sought independence from France, which had conquered it in the late s. French businessman and investor from the prominent Rothschild banking family, an extensive and international family of German-Jewish origin who first established financial institutions in the late eighteenth century.

The effort by the Allied countries to eliminate the influence of Nazi ideology from post-war Germany by removing members of the National Socialist Party from public office and positions of influence. A term that refers to the forced travel of prisoners who were evacuated from Nazi camps near the advancing military front to camps within Greater Germany in late and early Amid the chaos as the end of the war neared, the death marches prevented prisoners from being freed by liberating Allied armies and kept them under the Nazi regime to be used as slave labour for as long as possible.

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Prisoners often had to walk hundreds of kilometres under difficult conditions and at least , prisoners died of starvation, exhaustion, exposure, or at the hands of SS guards if they collapsed or could not keep up with others on the march. The founder of the Belgian conservative nationalist Rexist Party in November , which called for increased influence for the Catholic Church in Belgian society and the abolition of liberal democracy. The party was dissolved in The boundary between the northern part of France occupied by the Germans Occupied Zone and the southern Unoccupied Zone that was under the control of the Vichy government.

See also Vichy France.

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The term used to describe the aftermath of the world-wide economic collapse that started with the American stock market crash in October The Great Depression affected the economy of most countries up until the lates. In Canada, the unemployment rate rose to 27 per cent by The enamel factory in Krakow, Poland, that was taken over by Oskar Schindler in At its height, the Emalia employed close to 1, Jewish workers, who were housed in a small camp on the factory grounds. Keeping the Jewish workers onsite saved them from the horrors of Plaszow, the slave labour and concentration camp that operated nearby and that officially had authority over the subcamp at the Emalia.

The places where diamonds are traded are known as diamond exchanges. People who find themselves homeless and stateless at the end of a war. Following World War II, millions of people, especially European Jews, found that they had no homes to return to or that it was unsafe to do so. To resolve the staggering refugee crisis that resulted, Allied authorities and the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration UNRRA established displaced persons DP camps to provide temporary shelter and assistance to refugees, and help them transition toward resettlement.

The camps provided temporary shelter and assistance to the millions of people — not only Jews — who had been displaced from their home countries as a result of the war and helped them prepare for resettlement. An alleged conspiracy by a group of doctors — most of them Jewish — to eliminate the top leadership of the Soviet Union by poisoning them.

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Fortunately for the accused, Stalin died only days before their trial was about to begin. A month after his death in March , the newspaper Pravda declared that the case had been fabricated and that the doctors had been released.

The largest synagogue in Budapest, and in Europe, built in the mid-nineteenth century. In , the Germans used the synagogue as a detention camp, and in it became one of the boundaries of the Budapest ghetto. Over two thousand Jews who died in the Budapest ghetto were buried in a cemetery in the courtyard outside the synagogue.

The synagogue was damaged during air raids at the end of World War II, and restorations were made in the s. Behind the synagogue are sculptures and memorials commemorating the dead and the Righteous Among the Nations in the Raoul Wallenberg Holocaust Memorial Park, named after the Swedish diplomat who saved thousands of Hungarian Jews during the Holocaust. The synagogue still holds prayer services, as well as cultural functions. Chancellor of Austria from — Dollfuss advocated for Austrian independence; his anti-Nazi Party stance led to his assassination by Austrian Nazis on July 25, A northeastern suburb of Paris that was the site of an internment and transit camp from which about 65, people, almost all Jews, were deported to concentration and death camps.

Established in August , the camp was run by the French police until it was taken over in July by the Nazi SS, who ran it until its liberation in August In , she was transferred to Auschwitz II—Birkenau. Drechsler worked with the notorious Josef Mengele in selecting women and children for the gas chambers and she was feared for her brutal beatings. She was executed by the Soviets in the spring of See also Aufseherin; Mengele, Josef. Hebrew; freedom A secular socialist Zionist youth movement that originated in Russia in and moved to Poland after the Russian Revolution.

By the s, Dror had spread throughout Europe and to South America. Dror prepared Jewish youth to immigrate to British Mandate Palestine and was active in resistance activities during the Holocaust, including the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The organization merged with Habonim Union in to create Habonim Dror, an international Labour-Zionist youth movement.

These political and economic reforms resulted in greater freedom for Czech citizens and aimed to replace the repressive, totalitarian style of communism with a more humane socialism. The head of the Jewish community in Riga, Latvia, who represented Agudas Yisrael, a religious Jewish political party, in the different legislative bodies of Latvia between and In , Dubin was deported from Latvia by Soviet authorities.

Though he returned to Riga in , he was later rearrested and sentenced to prison. He died under mysterious circumstances in either a camp or a psychiatric hospital near Moscow. A member of the French Communist Party who was elected to the French National Assembly in and filled a variety of roles, including vice-president of the National Assembly, deputy to Maurice Thorez and acting secretary general of the Communist Party from to A town on the northern coast of France that was the site of the improvised evacuation of British forces between May 26 and June 4, A conservative Canadian politician who formed a new nationalist party called Union Nationale and served five terms as Premiere of Quebec from — and from — A Canadian-born actress and singer who appeared in Hollywood films and recorded fifty songs between and A term referring to hobbyists who receive and listen to shortwave and other distant radio broadcasts.

In telegraphy, DX is a short form for distance transmission. Well-known Yiddish language comedians in pre-war Poland who survived the war in the Soviet Union and returned to Poland after the war ended.

gspiii.crabdance.com/isabel-de-espaa-ayer-y-hoy.php In the early s the comedic pair moved to Israel where they remained until their deaths in and respectively. The site was used infrequently by Hitler because of his aversion to heights and a fear that lightning would strike the house. A town in upper Austria located seventy-five kilometres southwest of Linz that was also the site of a forced labour camp, a subcamp of the Mauthausen complex, from November until May Forced labourers at Ebensee were used to build tunnels to conceal ammunition. The conditions in the camp were deplorable and more than 20, prisoners died there.